This study is concerned with grain mills that were powered by the natural water flow in the rivers and valleys of Palestine. This book deals with the architecture, history, and geographical distribution of mills in Mandatory Palestine. It also explores one of the pre-industrial modes of production when people relied on manpower, bred animals, power of the running water and wind energy to operate the machinery to grind wheat, barley, corn, sugar cane and similar food ingredients. Through conducting a historical research, in addition to the fieldwork, we have been able to record more than 450 mills that are powered by seasonal floods or the perpetual flow of water from springs and rivers in most parts of Palestine. The book traces this “industry” back to the Romans and focuses on the golden period of the development of mills working with the power of flowing water, especially the Mamluk and Ottoman periods, until the middle of the twentieth century when diesel-powered factories replaced traditional/natural forces.